Left Turning Tendencies

If you were to watch a non-pilot (or a very inexperienced pilot) try to fly any American-made airplane, you would notice that they would be fighting a constant losing battle with a mysterious force that seemed to be determined to veer the airplane to the left.

In actuality, it is actually a combination of three (sometimes four) forces that do this, and each one demonstrates an interesting and unique physics topic. Uncreatively, these are known together as left-turning forces:

The Torque From A Spinning Propeller

P-Factor (Asymmetric Blade Effect)

Spiraling Slipstream

Gyroscopic Precession

    Note: Gyroscopic Precession does not occur in every phase of flight