Exploration heavily involves geology and geophysics. Even though the oil and gas industry has the reputation of being environmentally unfriendly, petroleum exploration is performed in clean and safe manner.
  • Geophysical Surveys: Seismic Survey, magnetic survey electromagnetic survey, gravity survey
  • Aerial Photo graphs / Satellite images: imaging radar.
  • Surface outcrops: geologists analyze uplifted surface outcrops to determine the subsurface in the region.
  These methods provide good probability of hydrocarbon accumulation but drilling is the only conclusive method in discovering oil.


 The majority of the the textbook physics is
 involved in Petroleum Drilling: The mechanics
 of the drill rig, hydrolics, pulley systems etc.

 Click the link below to view an educational drill
 rig module created by The Advanced Energy
Rig Animation
Drilling Methods
  • Cable Tool (not applied today)
  • Rotary Drilling (universal)
Drilling Technology
  • Coil tube drilling (multilateral wells)
  • Top drive (no rotary table or kelly)
  • Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA)
  • Conventional: (rotary table with kelly)


  Fundamental Equationsgeneral equations
Petroleum Production essentially begins with the horizontal separator.

horizontal separator
  Once the reservoir fluids come to the surface they first go through the horizontal separator where gas comes out the top, oil comes out the side and  water comes out the bottom. Now that the fluids are split up they undergo different processes. The gas will be compressed,  dehydrated, and liquefied then whether or not there is a market for natural gas the gas will be piped to a refinery or it will be reinjected into the reservoir for secondary recovery. The crude will be further processed to remove other unwanted components then it will be piped to a refinery. The water will be treated and reinjected into the reservoir to help displace more oil.

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