Water is composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atom. This is a simple molecular structure made up of covalent bonds. These bonds are better defined as a hydrogen bond, which is the strongest bond relative to the other types of polarization bonds such as Van Der Waals, ion-ion bond, and other non-covalent bonds. "Water is not a simple liquid. It possesses strongly polar hydrogen bonds which are responsible for a striking set of physical and chemical properties[...]" (Robinson). When atoms have a covalent bond that means the atoms are sharing electrons to reach a more stable state.
        Since water has a oxygen that has a bonding charge of -4 because its four electrons orbiting the nucleus of the oxygen atom. Hydrogen has a bonding charge of +1 because a hydrogen atom simply acts as a proton, which has a positive charge. With an H2O molecule there is a partial net -2 charge on it so that means the molecule is polar. A polar molecule, for example, acts like a magnet. Where there is a magnetic negative and positive side to a magnet, there is a similar distribution of positive and negative charges on a polar molecule. Because there are these opposite forces, the negative side of one water molecule will attract the positive side of another water molecule, and the two water molecules together will attract more water molecules. That is what causes the attractive forces of a water molecule and why water sticks to itself so well. This phenomena is described as Cohesion.



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