How a Rifle works
There are many mechanical
designs for various firearms that have
been produced in the last few centuries, but they all have 3 basic
components. Those components are the action, barrel and stock. These
all are important parts of the rifle, and all work together to make a
rifle shoot. There are many types of rifles, each has different
operation and function differently.
The action is the central part of the rifle that contains
mechanical parts needed to fire a round. It usually contains some sort
of magazine to hold additional ammunition. It must contain parts that
will cycle the ammunition, fire then eject the spent cases. The
cartridges are cycled on what is called a bolt, that has an face that
holds the cartridge by the rim. The bold also contains parts that make
the firing pin strike the primer. The bolt has an extractor, which is
just a spring loaded claw that holds the cartridge to the face of the
bolt. Once the cartridge is fired the bolt moves backward and a spring
causes the empty case to be ejected from the action.
is attached directly to the action and the barrel is securely affixed
the front of the action. The barrel is a tube, but most all rifles have
spiraling grooves cut into them that act to give the bullet a spin as
it is accelerated. This spin does no more than just to stabilize a
bullet. The spinning causes gyroscopic forces on a bullet which helps
to prevent any wobble along its axis. A stable traveling projectile
will always have more efficient flight path and will have less drag.
Depending on the rifle, the barrel can have different rates of twist of
it's rifling. Commonly rifling can have a rate of twist from 1:14" to
1:8". This the distance that the rifling makes one complete rotation,
or twist. Giving that 1:8" rate of twist would be considered a higher
rate that 1:10". Rates of twist determines how much twist will be
applied to the bullet before leaving the barrel. Different bullets need
more stability than others. Longer, heavier bullets need higher rates
of twist than shorter, light bullets.