What Makes Up a Piano?
When looking at a modern grand piano, it's not easy to see every little component that is used in its construction. Only the outer components are seen: a polished black frame, a black and white keyboard, and three foot pedals. Buth there is so much more!

Here are some important parts of the Piano...
  • Keyboard
    • There are 88 black and white keys on a modern piano. The white keys represent natural notes and black keys represent the corresponding note's flat or sharp.
  • Strings
    • There are 230 strings usually in sets of three except on lower registers where sets of two are used. Strings are position diagonally on a piano because longer strings increase the quality of sound while utilizing the full site of the piano.
    • Each string is tuned by turning its tuning pin. These tuning pins are anchored in a large, think multi-layered block of hard wood known as the pinblock.
  • Damper
    • The dampers are there to stop the vibrations on the strings after the sound has continued long enough. When a key is pressed, the damper is lifted and when the key is released, the damper falls back to the designated strings.
  • Pedals
    • There are 3 foot pedals
      • Una Corda Pedal (left pedal) is used to exaggerate a lower and softer volume in sound
      • Sostenuto Pedal (middle pedal) allows certain notes to be sustained while other notes on the keyboard are unaffected
      • Sustain Pedal (right pedal) lifts all the dampers off the strings and lets all the notes on the piano to resonate after the keys have been lifted. The sound will contine to resonate as long as the key has been lifted and the pedal is depressed.
  • Frame and Cast Iron Plate
    • Because thre is so much string tension on a piano (a concert grand piano can have up to 30 tons of string tension), a piano must have a tremendously stable frame. "A modern piano's strings are supported by an iron plate, cast in a single piece and bolted into a heavy wooden frame
  • Soundboard and Bridge:
    • On the piano, the sound made by strings are nearly impossible to hear without being amplified. To amplify the sound, the strings are pressed down on a musical bridge, which transfers the vibrations to a large, thin piece of wood known as the soundboard.
  • The Piano Action
    • Each key on the piano is connected to a felt-covered hammer. When a key is played, the hammer strikes the string and causes it to vibrate. However, it involves an 'escapement mechanism' where the "instant before the hammer strikes the string, the hammer 'escapes' from its connection with the key; hence it bounces back a little bit after striking the string." When the key is release, it returns to its original position and is ready to be played again.

How It's Made
Background: http://www.pickywallpapers.com/1600x900/anime/drawings/colorful-piano-art-wallpaper/download/