· The basic theory of turbine engine can be traced back to 150 B.C. in Alexandria, Egypt. A man named Hero is said to have invented a steam powered "Whirligig" toy that had no real purpose but to look cool.
·Around 1500 Leonardo Da Vinci sketched a device that could be placed inside of a chimney stack and would circulate a spit for roasting meat.
· In 1629 Giovanni Branca designed a jet principal that can be traced to the operation of primitive machinery.
·A drawing of an invention called Newton's Carriage was later found and while Newton helped in the design, it is said to be originally designed by Willem Jako Gravesande.
·The first actual patent design of a gas turbine engine is dated 1791 by John Barber, which had all of the same essential working parts as today's modern turbine engine.
·In the early 1900's
design production was in full swing in America.
is credited to have the first flying test aircraft in
1941which turned out to be successful with a “Gloster
Image 3&4 courtesy of: http://www.thaitechnics.com/engine/engine_intro.html
Image 2 courtesy of: http://modelengines.info/aeolipile/
(While there are a number of different turbine engines, I will focus mainly on the Turbofan type engines)
A working understanding in physics theory is important for this topic.
Image 5 Courtesy of : http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/courses/ww2/projects/jet-airplanes/how.html
|Basic laws of physics that apply to turbines
·The thrust of a turbine engine can be explained by Isaac Newton's laws of motion; more particularly the second and third law.
·Newton’s second law, acceleration of a body is directly related to the force and indirectly proportional to mass of the object. This concept can be understood through the means of a very basic and powerful equation used today in all forms of physics
·Force = Mass x Acceleration.
·Meaning that in order for a reaction to take place or a displacement of an object, there must be a force, not just any force though, one with enough acceleration to overcome the mass of the object.
·Acceleration can be explained as the change in velocity (or speed); the interval at which an object increases it's velocity.· Newton’s third law, for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction, describes the turbines action of taking a continuous airflow, compressing it, adding fuel and converting mechanical and thermal energy into thrust.
Image 6 courtesy of: http://www.free-online-private-pilot-ground-school.com/turbine-engines.html
...and Bernoulli's Theorem
Image 7 courtesy of: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html
Image courtesy of: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/etr.html
|Engine Temperature Ratio
In the recent years a new type of more efficient turbine engine has been introduced that actually boasts its ability to run a 5:1 ratio of fan to engine thrust, where in one case of the Pratt and Whitney 4000 only 20% of the thrust comes from the engine core, the other 80% comes from the large ninety four inch fan on the front.
2. Bypass fan.
3. Turbine inlet (beginning of cold section.).
5. Burner can.
6. Turbine blade stage that coverts the hot expanding air to spin the compressor blade.
7. Turbine blade that converts the hot expanding air to spin the inlet blades.
8. Exhaust section.
9. Bypass section where most of the thrust is being produced.
Image 8 courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbofan
Image 9 courtesy of: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/Animation/turbtyp/etff.html