Actuators for the promotion of: Artificial Muscles and Tendons 
Hooke's Law: materials deform in linear proportion to the load (force) applied to it. F~KS where K is a constant and S is the amount deformed (Newman 2003).
Stress= force/area this looks like pressure, which also is a type of stress. There are two types of stress: 1)normalwhich is perpendicular to the material 2)shear stresswhich is parallel to the material.
The response of a material to a stress is called a strain. Strain= change in length/original length. There are two types of normal stress: 1)tensile 2)compressure
All materials have
a stress/strain diagram. Y= stress/strain= (F/A)/(delta L/L not) this is related to K F= (YA/L not) times delta L where (YA/L not) is K which is Hookes Constant. This entire equation is Hooke's Law 2)shear modulus: shear stress/shear strain 3)bulk modulus: volumetric stress/volumetric strain

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Physics 103 Fall 2003 Dr. David Newman
last updated on 24Nov2003